Presentation by Thippichetty Thiagarajan, Ph.D., Viola Tuyud, Diomar Salazar, Jesse Chun and Lorna Perez at the 2nd Belize National Research Conference, 2019
Surgical site infections are amongst the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and cost due to increased hospital stay by patients. A study was conducted to understand antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major pathogens isolated from surgical site infections in Belize. A study was conducted utilizing existing data for a nine-year period collected through the Belize Health Information System, Ministry of Health. Raw data from 2009 to 2017, was compiled and arranged and a detailed statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS and Microsoft-Excel. Descriptive analysis was conducted to extrapolate sensitivity patterns of isolates. From the 630 samples that were cultured only 50% (315) had pathogen growth. A single pathogen was isolated from 93.3% of the samples while multiple pathogens were isolated from 6.7% of samples. The most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (31.1%), followed by Escherichia coli (17.6%), Klebsiella spp (13.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.7%) and Enterobacter spp. (6.45%). Aerobic Gram negative bacteria accounted for 58.1%, while aerobic Gram positive bacteria accounted for 38.4%. Cesarean procedures accounted for the highest number of infections with 28.3% while the age group most affected was between 20 – 29 years of age. Sixty-two percent of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to Erythromycin whereas all of Escherichia coli isolates (100%) were resistant to Erythromycin. The antimicrobial resistant patterns of the pathogens showed that more than 20% of all isolates were resistant to most antibiotics in all the years of the study with some isolates were seen multidrug resistant. More than 50% of all isolates during the study period showed resistance to erythromycin. Continuous surveillance of SSIs and compliance to regulations is essential and a reduction in antibiotic usage must be targeted as this will help to reduce the development of antibiotic resistance in pathogens.
Key words: Belize medical, public health, anti-biotics, drug resistance